HugeGraph Plugin mechanism and plug-in extension process


  1. HugeGraph is not only open source and open, but also simple and easy to use. General users can easily add plug-in extension functions without changing the source code.
  2. HugeGraph supports a variety of built-in storage backends, and also allows users to extend custom backends without changing the existing source code.
  3. HugeGraph supports full-text search. The full-text search function involves word segmentation in various languages. Currently, there are 8 built-in Chinese word breakers, and it also allows users to expand custom word breakers without changing the existing source code.

Scalable dimension

Currently, the plug-in method provides extensions in the following dimensions:

  • backend storage
  • serializer
  • Custom configuration items
  • tokenizer

Plug-in implementation mechanism

  1. HugeGraph provides a plug-in interface HugeGraphPlugin, which supports plug-in through the Java SPI mechanism
  2. HugeGraph provides four extension registration functions: registerOptions(), registerBackend(), registerSerializer(),registerAnalyzer()
  3. The plug-in implementer implements the corresponding Options, Backend, Serializer or Analyzer interface
  4. The plug-in implementer implements register()the method of the HugeGraphPlugin interface, registers the specific implementation class listed in the above point 3 in this method, and packs it into a jar package
  5. The plug-in user puts the jar package in the HugeGraph Server installation directory plugins, modifies the relevant configuration items to the plug-in custom value, and restarts to take effect

Plug-in implementation process example

1 Create a new maven project

1.1 Name the project name: hugegraph-plugin-demo
1.2 Add hugegraph-core Jar package dependencies

The details of maven pom.xml are as follows:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<project xmlns=""




2 Realize extended functions

2.1 Extending a custom backend
2.1.1 Implement the interface BackendStoreProvider
  • Realizable interfaces:
  • Or inherit an abstract

Take the RocksDB backend RocksDBStoreProvider as an example:

public class RocksDBStoreProvider extends AbstractBackendStoreProvider {

    protected String database() {
        return this.graph().toLowerCase();

    protected BackendStore newSchemaStore(String store) {
        return new RocksDBSchemaStore(this, this.database(), store);

    protected BackendStore newGraphStore(String store) {
        return new RocksDBGraphStore(this, this.database(), store);

    public String type() {
        return "rocksdb";

    public String version() {
        return "1.0";
2.1.2 Implement interface BackendStore

The BackendStore interface is defined as follows:

public interface BackendStore {
    // Store name
    public String store();

    // Database name
    public String database();

    // Get the parent provider
    public BackendStoreProvider provider();

    // Open/close database
    public void open(HugeConfig config);
    public void close();

    // Initialize/clear database
    public void init();
    public void clear();

    // Add/delete data
    public void mutate(BackendMutation mutation);

    // Query data
    public Iterator<BackendEntry> query(Query query);

    // Transaction
    public void beginTx();
    public void commitTx();
    public void rollbackTx();

    // Get metadata by key
    public <R> R metadata(HugeType type, String meta, Object[] args);

    // Backend features
    public BackendFeatures features();

    // Generate an id for a specific type
    public Id nextId(HugeType type);
2.1.3 Extending custom serializers

The serializer must inherit the abstract class: org.apache.hugegraph.backend.serializer.AbstractSerializer ( implements GraphSerializer, SchemaSerializer) The main interface is defined as follows:

public interface GraphSerializer {
    public BackendEntry writeVertex(HugeVertex vertex);
    public BackendEntry writeVertexProperty(HugeVertexProperty<?> prop);
    public HugeVertex readVertex(HugeGraph graph, BackendEntry entry);
    public BackendEntry writeEdge(HugeEdge edge);
    public BackendEntry writeEdgeProperty(HugeEdgeProperty<?> prop);
    public HugeEdge readEdge(HugeGraph graph, BackendEntry entry);
    public BackendEntry writeIndex(HugeIndex index);
    public HugeIndex readIndex(HugeGraph graph, ConditionQuery query, BackendEntry entry);
    public BackendEntry writeId(HugeType type, Id id);
    public Query writeQuery(Query query);

public interface SchemaSerializer {
    public BackendEntry writeVertexLabel(VertexLabel vertexLabel);
    public VertexLabel readVertexLabel(HugeGraph graph, BackendEntry entry);
    public BackendEntry writeEdgeLabel(EdgeLabel edgeLabel);
    public EdgeLabel readEdgeLabel(HugeGraph graph, BackendEntry entry);
    public BackendEntry writePropertyKey(PropertyKey propertyKey);
    public PropertyKey readPropertyKey(HugeGraph graph, BackendEntry entry);
    public BackendEntry writeIndexLabel(IndexLabel indexLabel);
    public IndexLabel readIndexLabel(HugeGraph graph, BackendEntry entry);
2.1.4 Extend custom configuration items

When adding a custom backend, it may be necessary to add new configuration items. The implementation process mainly includes:

  • Add a configuration item container class and implement the interface org.apache.hugegraph.config.OptionHolder
  • Provide a singleton method public static OptionHolder instance(), and call the method when the object is initialized OptionHolder.registerOptions()
  • Add configuration item declaration, single-value configuration item type is ConfigOption, multi-value configuration item type is ConfigListOption

Take the RocksDB configuration item definition as an example:

public class RocksDBOptions extends OptionHolder {

    private RocksDBOptions() {

    private static volatile RocksDBOptions instance;

    public static synchronized RocksDBOptions instance() {
        if (instance == null) {
            instance = new RocksDBOptions();
        return instance;

    public static final ConfigOption<String> DATA_PATH =
            new ConfigOption<>(
                    "The path for storing data of RocksDB.",

    public static final ConfigOption<String> WAL_PATH =
            new ConfigOption<>(
                    "The path for storing WAL of RocksDB.",

    public static final ConfigListOption<String> DATA_DISKS =
            new ConfigListOption<>(
                    "The optimized disks for storing data of RocksDB. " +
                    "The format of each element: `STORE/TABLE: /path/to/disk`." +
                    "Allowed keys are [graph/vertex, graph/edge_out, graph/edge_in, " +
                    "graph/secondary_index, graph/range_index]",
2.2 Extend custom tokenizer

The tokenizer needs to implement the interface org.apache.hugegraph.analyzer.Analyzer, take implementing a SpaceAnalyzer space tokenizer as an example.

package org.apache.hugegraph.plugin;

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.Set;

import org.apache.hugegraph.analyzer.Analyzer;

public class SpaceAnalyzer implements Analyzer {

    public Set<String> segment(String text) {
        return new HashSet<>(Arrays.asList(text.split(" ")));

3. Implement the plug-in interface and register it

The plug-in registration entry is HugeGraphPlugin.register(), the custom plug-in must implement this interface method, and register the extension items defined above inside it. The interface org.apache.hugegraph.plugin.HugeGraphPlugin is defined as follows:

public interface HugeGraphPlugin {

    public String name();

    public void register();

    public String supportsMinVersion();

    public String supportsMaxVersion();

And HugeGraphPlugin provides 4 static methods for registering extensions:

  • registerOptions(String name, String classPath): register configuration items
  • registerBackend(String name, String classPath): register backend (BackendStoreProvider)
  • registerSerializer(String name, String classPath): register serializer
  • registerAnalyzer(String name, String classPath): register tokenizer

The following is an example of registering the SpaceAnalyzer tokenizer:

package org.apache.hugegraph.plugin;

public class DemoPlugin implements HugeGraphPlugin {

    public String name() {
        return "demo";

    public void register() {
        HugeGraphPlugin.registerAnalyzer("demo", SpaceAnalyzer.class.getName());

4. Configure SPI entry

  1. Make sure the services directory exists: hugegraph-plugin-demo/resources/META-INF/services
  2. Create a text file in the services directory: org.apache.hugegraph.plugin.HugeGraphPlugin
  3. The content of the file is as follows: org.apache.hugegraph.plugin.DemoPlugin

5. Make Jar package

Through maven packaging, execute the command in the project directory mvn package, and a Jar package file will be generated in the target directory. Copy the Jar package to the plugins directory when using it, and restart the service to take effect.